CloudStack: Networking and Multi-Tenancy

This post is part of the Open Source Cloud Computing series. For an Overview, please click on the Tag. Networking with CloudStack Networking with CloudStack can be achieved with two topologies: the first topology is handled like with Amazon Web Services (AWS). This enables guest isolation via IP-Filtering. More networking possibilities are delivered with the “advanced” networking options. The advanced option allows multiple networks in a zone. Each individual network in an advanced setup needs to have a specific network type. They can be guest mode, management mode, public mode and storage mode. Multi-tenancy CloudStack provides multi-tenancy with the concept of Accounts, Domains and Users. An account is typically a tenant. Each Account may contain more users. A Domain allows the datacenter provider to group similar account types and to ease management of them. CloudStack may be extended by LDAP services such as Active Directory. Another concept is the “Project”. A project is a group of users working on similar tasks.

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CloudStack: Components

This post is part of the Open Source Cloud Computing series. For an Overview, please click on the Tag. The Management Server The Management Server is the entry point to the CloudStack Cloud. It manages all nodes and it exposes the API as well as the graphical user interface (GUI). Typically, the Management Server runs on a dedicated machine or virtual machine. The Management Server uses Tomcat and a MySQL Database for persistence. The Management Server also assigns public and private IP addresses and it also deals with the allocation of storage to the guests as virtual disks. CloudStack allows the management of snapshots, templates and ISO images, which is also provided by the Management Server. Cloud Infrastructure The Cloud Infrastructure consists of several layers. The lowest level is the host itself, which is a node where virtual instances run on. Nodes usually get added to a cluster. A cluster contains several nodes and has a primary storage attached. Clusters are

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CloudStack: Overview

CloudStack is currently available in the Version 4.0 and was usually initiated by, which was later acquired by Citrix. The source code for CloudStack is available open source and it is maintained as an Apache Project. The target of CloudStack is similar to the other 3 described projects: provide an Infrastructure as a Service Software. CloudStack supports both commercial hypervisors as well as open source hypervisors. From the commercial side, CloudStack currently implements Citrix XenServer and VMware vSphere and as for open source hypervisors there is support for XEN and KVM running on Ubuntu or CentOS. CloudStack is built to run tens of thousands of virtual Servers in geographically distributed regions. There is one managing server for all clusters, which makes cluster-wide management servers unnecessary. CloudStack configures each node automatically regarding storage and networking. Internally managed virtual appliances take care of firewalling, routing, DHCP, VPN access, console proxy, storage access, and storage replication. CloudStack also offers a graphical user

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OpenNebula: Components

OpenStack has some main components: Interfaces & API, Groups and Users, Networking, Storage, Hosts and Clusters. Interfaces & API. The two main interfaces for interaction with OpenNebula are the Command Line Interface (CLI) and the Graphical User Interface (GUI). The Graphical User Interface is also known as “Sunstone”. OpenNebula offers different APIs for Developers to extend the functionality or built on top of OpenNebula. These APIs are currently available as Amazon Web Services (AWS) APIs and OCCI Implementation. Groups and Users. OpenNebula allows different groups and users. It is also possible to integrate with different services such as LDAP and Microsoft’s Active Directory. Multi-tenancy is possible by default, which eases billing and accounting. OpenNebula comes with the following standard users: administrators, regular users, public users and service users. Administrators are in charge of administrative tasks within OpenNebula, regular users can use the functionality of OpenNebula in the self-service Portal. Public users are restricted users that may only use a subset

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OpenNebula: Overview

This post is part of the Open Source Cloud Computing series. For an Overview, please click on the Tag. OpenNebula is an open source Software for Infrastructure as a Service Solutions, which started as a research project in 2005. The first public release was available in 2008. Ubuntu, Debian and OpenSuse currently support OpenNebula. The project is funded by European Institutions. OpenNebula provides Amazon Web Services (AWS) EC2 and Elastic Block Storage (EBS) APIs, as well as OGF OCCI (Open Cloud Computing Interface) APIs. OpenNebula also provides a self-service Portal to their users. OpenNebula has several third-party tools for Software Stack automation and it is easy to integrate a marketplace for applications in OpenNebula platforms. Administrators have their own portal, which is called “Sunstone”, and OpenNebula provides a Unix-inspired command line interface (CLI). OpenNebula Marketplace allows virtual appliances to be managed and run in OpenNebula environments. Billing is basically easy as there is a fine-grained accounting and monitoring system available. Account

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Eucalyptus: Walrus and Storage Controller

This post is part of the Open Source Cloud Computing series. For an Overview, please click on the Tag. Walrus Walrus is also called “WS3” and is the storage service provided by Eucalyptus. The Storage Service provides simple storage functionality, which is exposed by ReSTful and Soap APIs. Walrus takes care of storing the virtual machine images, storing the snapshots and serving Files. As with all other public facing Services in Eucalyptus, these Services are based on the Amazon Web Services API. Containers in Walrus Storage are called „Buckets“ and they have to be unique across accounts, just like it is with Amazon Web Services (AWS). Some naming restrictions are: Containers can contain lowercase letters, numbers, periods (.), underscores (_), and dashes (-) Container Names must start with a number or letter The Length of a Name must be between 3 and 255 characters long It is not allowed to use an IP-Address as Name (e.g., The maximum File Size

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Eucalyptus: Cloud, Cluster and Node Controller

This post is part of the Open Source Cloud Computing series. For an Overview, please click on the Tag. Cloud Controller The Cloud Controller – also known as CLC – is the highest level in Eucalyptus. There is one Cloud Controller per infrastructure. The Cloud Controller is in charge of the following tasks: Connect to virtual instances via SSH Provide a Front end for the Web Services that are EC2 and S3 compatible The Cloud Controller acts as a Meta Scheduler for the Cloud Infrastructure and determines which infrastructure to use. The Cloud Controller collects resource information from Cluster Controllers The Cloud Controller runs per default on same machine as Walrus und the Storage Controller. The Cloud Controller acts as the main Element for a Eucalyptus Cloud. Each Eucalyptus-based Cloud starts with the Cloud Controller. Different Zones or Regions are realized with a Cluster Controller. There is exactly one Cloud Controller. Cluster Controller The Cluster Controller (CC) comes next in hierarchy

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Eucalyptus: Overview

This post is part of the Open Source Cloud Computing series. For an Overview, please click on the Tag. Eucalyptus was developed at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) and is provided under the GNU GLP v3 Open Source License. The name Eucalyptus stands for  “Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs To Useful Systems”. Its main target is to enable the execution and control of virtual instances with Xen or KVM under Linux and to provide an API that is compatible to Amazon Web Services (AWS). Since Eucalyptus is basically built upon the Amazon APIs, it is great for hybrid Cloud Solutions. The first version of Eucalyptus was released in 2008. Platform Description Each Eucalyptus component runs as UNIX service and communication between the components is based on SOAP Web services. Eucalyptus infrastructure may consist of one or more locations, which represent different datacenters. Eucalyptus consists the Cloud Controller, Cluster Controller, Node Controller, Walrus and the Storage

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Open Source Cloud Computing Platforms

In the next blog posts, I will describe some major Open Source Cloud Computing platforms. I will cover the 4 major platforms, including: OpenStack Eucalyptus OpenNebula CloudStack This series will run alongside the self service IT series. By the end of the series, I will compare these 4 platforms with the self service attributes I will evaluate during the series. So keep on reading all of them 🙂